Cities for marginal communities. Lessons learned from Indonesia’s slum alleviation program

Author(s): Adhamaski Pangeran, Ridzki Januar Akbar

Abstract / Introduction (download full article at the bottom)

Slum settlement areas still haunting cities across Indonesia. Some slums are created because the poor cannot afford or access housing from the formal housing market (UN-Habitat, 2008). These low-income people choose to live in places close to income-earning activities, located near the commercial centers, in order to cut transportation cost. However, houses in those strategic places are expensive. Therefore, the poor are forced to choose the unwanted low-priced sites and areas, such as riverbanks or railways. Such settlements usually lack decent infrastructure, services, and security of tenure. Another form of slum occurs in neighborhoods which were once in good condition but have deteriorated. In these neighborhoods, the increasing population causing overcrowding (UN-Habitat, 2008). Such settlements in Indonesia are referred to as “Kampung”. Residents often choose to live in slum settlement because it is affordable, yet close to their place of work (Pangkerego & Zulkaidi, 2014). For inhabitants, the slum settlements are more than a place for living; it is also a place to make a living as they often utilize their house as a workplace to sell goods to their neighbors. The population of big cities in Indonesia is increasing rapidly. In 2035, it is projected that 66.6% of all Indonesian will be living in urban areas (PPN/Bappenas, 2015). This circumstance leads to socio-economic and cultural shifts and changes. Moreover, it has an impact on national and urban policies, including housing and settlement sectors. With this rapid population growth, the Government of Indonesia has developed a slum alleviation policy, which includes slum upgrading and slum prevention in the form of Kota Tanpa Kumuh, or “City without Slum”, (KOTAKU) Program. The program was designed to support the achievement of the Indonesia Mid-Term National Development Plan to provide sustainable, affordable, and adequate housing. Moreover, since 2017 The Government of Indonesia has enacted and implemented Presidential Decree 59/2017 on the Implementation in Achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Indonesia.

Publication: ISOCARP Review 15, pp. 229-248
Year: 2019
Editors: Malgorzata Hanzl, Jim Reilly, Mahak Agrawal
Coordinator: Lucian Perici
Graphic Designer: Ricardo Moura
ISBN: 978-90-75524-628

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